Enhancement of Livelihood Security through Sustainable Farming Systems and Related Farm Enterprises in North-West Himalaya

-A MARCH TO RAINBOW REVOLUTION

Introduction
Mission
Objectives
Innovative Approaches
Consortium Partners
The Road Map To Livelihood Security
Monitoring and Evaluation Indicators
Project Sustainability
Expected Outcome
Project Sites
Post Project Implementation Summary
Technology Demonstration
Reports
Success Story - Mushroom
Success Story - Black Smithy
 

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Introduction

The consortium of well-established, capable and lead organizations was formed for the development of the five disadvantaged districts of N.W. Himalayas. The districts selected are - Kupwara and Doda districts of Jammu & Kashmir, Chamba district of Himachal Pradesh, Tehri Garhwal and Champawat districts of Uttarakhand. The selection of the districts was based on the report of Planning Commission of Govt. of India. This selection was based on agricultural productivity per worker, agricultural wages and SC/ST population of the area. The selection of the operational sites in each district was based on six sub-indices which are infrastructure status, agricultural status, food availability status, nutritional status, economic status and representativeness explicability and adoptability in the region. A brief baseline information of the operational clusters of the  selected districts are given below. 

District Kupwara (Jammu & Kashmir): It is the border district with three tehsils, namely, Kupwara, Handwara, and Karnah. The cultivable area is 66,594 ha, however only 45,970 ha is cultivated. Irrigated area is 30 percent. There are 87,000 agricultural holdings with average holding size of 0.44 ha.
   
District Doda (Jammu & Kashmir): This is the third largest district in the state, after Leh and Kargil. It has diverse agro-climatic conditions from subtropical plain to semi-temperate to alpine and sub-alpine conditions. It has seven tehsils with cultivated area of 84,900 ha. About 20,000 ha area is under horticulture.
   
District Chamba (Himachl Pradesh): Chamba is a typically backward district having six sub-divisions. It has 6,52,800 ha area with a total of 87,000 households. The growing condition is diverse from sub-tropical to wet and dry temperate.
   
District Tehri Garhwal (Uttarakhand): This district in Uttarakhand state consists of 182 villages with a cultivable area of 61,569 ha area, of which only 7.4 per cent is irrigated. The district represents widely diverse growing conditions from valley to high hills and alpine pastures.
   

District Champawat (Uttarakhand): This district has four developmental blocks. The district has 44 per cent of its area under forest cover. Area under agricultural activities accounts about 17,656 ha of small and marginal holdings. The district is largely rainfed and hence dominated by traditional agriculture practices. The area also suffers from moderate to heavy soil erosion which has led to poor productivity of agricultural crops. Moreover lack of sufficient transfer of technology of improved practices and materials to this area has forced the farmers to practice subsistence farming without any other alternative source of livelihood.

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Farming has been a traditional occupation for sustaining rural population in N W Himalaya. However, its development in hills has not kept pace with the national progress and has remained far short of peoples’ expectations. Insufficient food production, lack of alternate employment and over exploitation of natural resources have affected the carrying capacity resulting in marginalization of the hill farmers.

 

NW Himalaya has limited land available for farming and even that has higher proportion of degradation. Mountainous region is characterized by extreme climate, poor accessibility, remoteness, small and staggered fields and largely traditional farming. Generally, this has resulted in subsistence economy. However, the hill ecosystem at the same time offer great niche potential in off-seasonality, site specific farming and farm diversification for greater impacts.

The Planning Commission has identified 150 disadvantaged districts in the country including Kupwara, Doda, Chamba, Tehri Garhwal and Champawat, which are situated in NW Himalaya. Farm families lack knowledge, properly packaged technologies, poor investment in infrastructure and lack of drive towards transforming hill agriculture into a viable and competitive livelihood. Considering the agro-ecosystem constraints, improved farming and allied enterprises are among few options available for development. These realities need a feasible, replicable and successful model for development of rural hills. Efforts to improve livelihood based on higher system productivity, allied enterprises and natural resource are expected to provide food, environment and livelihood security.

   

Recognizing the challenges of environmental degradation, lack of knowledge-based farming and agro-processing, disadvantaged marketing and limited livelihood opportunities, a mega project of ICAR-NAIP, on ensuring livelihood security is launched by a consortium of nine institutions led by VPKAS, Almora. The consortium partners; SKUAST-K, SKUAST-J, ChSKHPKV, GBPUAT, CSWCRTI, GBPIHED, IITD, BAIF and VPKAS, are leading institutions with sound research program and have significant contributions to technology development and dissemination. The uniqueness of science led, technology driven and farmers’ participatory activities of the project promises success in the mission of providing a replicable model for niche based, sustainable development and livelihood security in mountains.

 
Mission
Niche based sustainable development and livelihood security in agricultural and allied sectors
 

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Objectives

Enhancement of Agricultural Productivity

Management of Natural Resource Base

Agro-processing, Value addition, Allied Livelihood and Improved Marketing

Empowerment through Capacity Building and Employment Generation

 

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Innovative Approaches

Science led, technology driven, farmers’ participatory, end to end multidisciplinary program in consortium mode.

Imparting livelihood security derived from adequate food, secure environment and vibrant economy on sustained basis

Livelihood generation by skilled and empowered community from farm and allied enterprises integrating value addition and marketing

Integration of NRM, farming systems and livelihood issues

Mega scale and intensity of technology input and involvement, of the institutions

 

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Consortium Partners

SKUAST-K,Srinagar-191121 (J&K)

Dr. Nazeer Ahmed, Co P.I. 

Email:dnak59(at)rediffmail[dot]com   Ph 0194-2462124, (O/F)

   

SKUAST-J,Jammu-180009 (J&K)

 Dr. A.S. Bali, Co P.I.

Email: amarjits_bali(at)rediffmail[dot]com 

Ph 0191-2262100(O ), 2119456 (R)

Ch SKHPKV,Palampur-176062 (HP).

 Dr. D.R. Chaudhary, Co P.I.

Email: dre_dee(at)yahoo[dot]com      

Ph 01894-283220(O), 253094(R).

GBPUAT,Ranichauri-249199 (UA)

Dr. V.K. Kediyal, Co P.I.

Email:kediyal(at)rediffmail[dot]com  

Ph 01376-252101, 252138 (O) 252171(R), 252128 (F) 

CSWCRTI, Dehradun-248195 (UA) 

 Dr. B.L. Dhyani, Co P.I. 

Email: dhyanibld(at)rediffmail[dot]com    

Ph: 0135-2757210(O) ,2673112(R), 2754213 (F) ,Mb: 91-9412155256

GBPIHED,Kosi-Katarmal-263643 (UA)

Dr. R.C. Sundriyal,Co P.I.

Email:  rcsundriyal(at)gbpihed[dot]nic[dot]in

Ph: 05962-241015(O), 241150 (F)   241229(R) Mb: 91-9411105170

IIT, Delhi-110016

Dr. P.M.V. Subbarao,Co P.I.

Email: pmvrao(at)mech[dot]iitd[dot]ac[dot]in

Ph 011-26591142(O) , 26591658(R)  26582053 (F) Mb: 91-9871331665

BAIF, Haridwar-249408(UA)

Dr. HB Singh, Co P.I.

Email: baifuttaranchal(at)sancharnet[dot]in

Ph: 05965-235067 (O), 240576 (O/F) Mb: 91-9411141399

Lead Centre: VPKAS, Almora

Consortium Leader: Director, VPKAS, Almora-263601 (UA) 

Ph:05962-230208(O),231539(F)  Email: vpkas(at)nic[dot]in   

Consortium P. I.: Dr. P.K. Agrawal  

Email: pawancrri(at)yahoo[dot]co[dot]in

Ph: 05962-231679 (O), Mb: 9411525150

The NAIP aims at generation and integration of innovative approaches and their application to improve the food grain, vegetable and fruit productivity and employment generation in the project area. Implementation of the project will provide valuable opportunity of scaling up of the technology, addressing the issues involved and impart robustness to the livelihood development model. Programme on emerging researchable and development issues will further sharpen the effectiveness of technology.

 

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The Road Map To Livelihood Security
Operational Districts
Kupwara & Doda (J&K), Chamba (HP) and Tehri-Garhwal & Champawat (UA)
2007-08  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2009-10  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2011-12
Unsecured livelihood Technological  intervention

Improved Livelihood security Food grains and  vegetables self sufficient - Clusters

Technological intervention

Livelihood secure, foodgrain self -sufficient, Fruits and   Vegetable surplus- Clusters

Low productivity of field and fruit. crops, water and fodder. 

Low level/ absence of water-harvesting, mechanization, polyhouses, fisheries. processing and allied enterprises;

Inadequate energy 
Lack of SHGs,  FIGs and availability of credit
Unorganized watershed management

out-migration

HYVs of  Field and fruit. crops

Improved Package of practices

Water harvesting, fishery  and protected cultivation

Farm implements, machines and agro- processing       

Allied enterprises- apiary, mushroom,  sericulture, poultry and fishery units

Fodder- grasses and trees

Livestock- up gradation  of health, nutritition and productivity

Solar energy, hydropower units and energy plantation

Formation of SHGs and FIGs

Micro-credit and insurance.

Targeted productivity of field crops and vegetables

  Strong base for fruit  production

Water  harvesting and protected Cultivation.

Establishment of   processing infrastructure

Farm mechanization and rural energy (60-70%)

Allied enterprises start production

SHGs and FIGs  in place

Linkages with Financial Institutions

established

  Recycling and extensive use of locally produced HYVs (quality seed and planting material)

Establishment of storage, packaging and value addition centres

Establishment  of market networks Promotion of  the brand “HIM

SHGs and FIGs, women empowerment

High and sustained productivity of field, horticultural crops and cattles

 Processing of surplus farm  produce

High level of mechanization and allied enterprises

Fulfillment of energy demand

 Empowered SHGs and FIGs managed

 processing and marketing of surplus.

High level of income.

 

 

 

 

 

   

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Monitoring and Evaluation Indicators

Productivity Enhancement: Increase in total productivity , seed replacement, farm mechanization, resources use and operational efficiency.

Nutritional Security: Production of diverse food commodities.

Risk Minimization: Integrated farming system, water harvesting and protected cultivation, value addition and improved marketing.

State of Environment: Improvement in vegetative cover, hydrology and adoption of IPNM.

Profitability: Loss preventing and cost reducing measures; value addition and agro-processing.

Livelihood Security: Skill enhancement capacity building, Increased employment in agriculture and allied enterprises. Reduction in drudgery of farm women and out migration
 

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Project Sustainability

The project is implemented in partnership with the farmers to develop a sense of belonging and ownership

A revolving fund will be created after formation of cooperative.

By mid-project period, resource base, production potential and value of produce will be evaluated for economic viability

Effective linkages to deal with input-output and production to consumption chain will be established

The long term institutional support with required backward-forward linkages and technological back-stopping by consortium partners, KVKs and other agencies will be ensured. 

 

 
 

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Expected Outcome

Livelihood security: Enhancement of employment to >300 man days. Additional income through allied enterprise.
Food and nutritional security: Bridging the existing gap in food and nutritional security (deficit in pulses -> 80%, oilseeds->80% and vegetables ->40%)
Environment security: Perenniality of water resources, enhancement of perennial vegetation cover, organic matter and carbon sequestration. Improved watershed characteristics. Reduce exploitation and degradation of natural resources beyond their carrying capacity, thereby ensuring better environment.
Better quality of life: Reduction in drudgery of women farmers; enhancement in the availability of fodder, fuel and rural energy; effective particiapation in decision making and economic indeoendence through organized self-help groups for women.
   
 

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Project sites and farmer selection:

 

Champawat district has a strong potential for enhancing its natural resource productivity, water harvesting, off-season vegetable production and diversified farming systems such as apiary, mushroom, dairy, poultry etc. Keeping all these constraints and positive aspects of the district in view, three clusters, namely Dharaunj, Gamod/Makot and Mudiyani were selected for their overall development after holding several discussions and meetings with the farm families. These selected clusters represent typical hill slope farming, diversified farming systems based livelihood and river valley farming. A brief summary of the clusters indicating their various aspects is given below.

   
  Total farm families to be covered under the project: 681
  Farm families targeted for the year 2007-08

Cluster 

Operational villages

No of families

Route & distance from Distt. Headquarter

Dharaunj

Dharaunj

114

Champawat– Devidhura road 56 km

Mudyani

Mudyani, Khooti, Banlekh

75

Champawat– Tanakpur road 10 km.

Makot-Gamod

Gamod, Jantola, Makot and Churani

135

Champawat- Ghat road 35 km

Total farm families

324

 

 

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Post project implementation summary:

 

During  Kharif 07, attempt has been made for the yield enhancement at farmers field by introducing high yielding  varieties of Maize, Ragi, Soyabean, Garden pea and French bean.  Data indicating the difference of yield between local and high yielding varieties is depicted below:

 

Dharonj cluster

Crop

High yielding variety

No of beneficiaries

Area (nali)

Yield (Kg/nali)

Local variety yield (kg/nali)

%  increase over local

Grain crop

Ragi

VL madua 149

50

50

32.2

22.9

29

Soyabean

VL soya 47

23

16

33.6

24.5

37

Maize

Him 129

27

10

40.6

27.4

48

VL sankul 11

37

37.5

37.9

27.4

38

Vegetable crop

French bean

VL bauni bean 1

10

10

153.3

-

-

Contender

36

30

125.14

-

-

Garden pea (August sown)

Arkel

36

50

96

 

 

 

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Mudyani cluster

Crop

High yielding variety

No of beneficiaries

Area (nali)

Yield (Kg/nali)

Local variety yield (kg/nali)

%  increase over local

Grain crop

Ragi

VL madua 149

26

50

29.8

18.2

63

Soyabean

VL soya 47

26

16.5

38.5

26.1

47

Maize

Him 129

20

12.5

36.8

26.5

38

VL sankul 11

21

12.5

38.1

26.5

43

Vegetable crop

Garden pea (August sown)

Arkel

20

35

86

-

-

 

  Fodder crops
Ample attention is also given for increasing the fodder availability and for this hybrid napier has been planted in the farmers field

Village

No. of beneficiaries

Quantity (q)

Mudyani

40

10

Dharonj

70

25

 

   Fruit crops
  Fruit crops were also planted in the farmers field in order to supplement their income. Planting was done keeping in view the recommended practices.

Clusters

Villages

Mango

Guava

Pant lemon

Total

Dharonj

Dharonj

0

0

500

500

Mudyani-  Banlekh

Mudyani

0

0

300

300

Khuti

0

0

200

200

Makot-Gamod

Gamod

0

1000

0

1000

Chaurani

500

0

0

500

 

Total

500

1000

1000

2500

 

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Technology Demonstrations

Light traps were installed at all the clusters at different locations after visiting the villages and detailed information was provided to the farmers about the utility of light trap and its role in the overall removal of white grub  . Also, the WGPSB powder developed by the institute was spread over in heaps of FYM in the villages for the control of the same.

   

August sown garden pea was sown at different clusters. Sowing was done after a demonstration on line sowing in the ridges was given in order to avoid water stagnation in the field which may result in wilting of seedlings.

   

Threshing of paddy was done by the paddy thresher after a demonstration was given to the farmers about its workability and its efficiency over manual threshing.

   

Farmers were also given demonstration on the electric operated madua /ragi thresher. The farmers have personally used it and had admitted its efficiency over manual threshing of madua which is more labour and time consuming.

   

Farmers were also demonstrated on their field about how to prepare scientific nursery beds. Demonstration for the same was given for onion and cauliflower seeds.
   

Demonstration on the line sowing of wheat, lentil and garden pea was also planned for Rabi 07-08 in the farmer’s field for improved varieties released by VPKAS. Adjacent plots were also prepared to show the difference between scientific method of sowing with improved varieties and local method of sowing using locally available varieties. Besides, the method of field preparation and adequate manure application were also demonstrated.

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